A couple of years ago I wrote an article on the famous four colouring theorem. (For those who missed it, the basic idea is that any map drawn on a flat plane will be able to be coloured such that no two neighbouring regions have the same colour, using only four colours). Although this problem has been solved, with a proof being completed nearly forty years ago now, it is a controversial problem in that the only known proof of this theorem is a brute force calculation by a computer, rather than an elegant a sophisticated bit of mathematical logic. As such some people still work on this problem, with the hope of eventually finding a simple proof.

However that is not the topic of today's article. Instead I thought I would present three very similar problems in mathematics for which there is no known proof - brute force or otherwise. In each case the conjecture is fairly simple to state and to understand, but is as yet unproven. And they are also the exact sorts of problems that amateur mathematicians can attack and enjoy.

So without further ado, here they are...

The Total Colouring Conjecture: If the four colouring conjecture is about maps of countries, then the total colouring conjecture is about maps of cities and highways. If you have a map (or a graph in mathematics terms) of cities and highways that connect the cities, then how many colours are required to colour in every city and every highway, such that no highway has the same colour as a city on either of its endpoints and no two cities connected by a highway have the same colour. Clearly the number of colours cannot be less than the maximum number of highways connected to any city (also known as the degree of the graph). In fact we know that it will always be at least one greater than the degree of the graph. The conjecture is that it will never be more than two greater, but as of this writing that has not been proven.